WHO guidelines on parenting interventions to prevent maltreatment and enhance parent–child relationships with children aged 0–17: Report of the Systematic Reviews of Evidence

Child maltreatment is a global public health problem. It can have detrimental and longlasting effects on the development and health of a child. Prevention is crucial and can be carried out using multiple approaches. The World Health Organization (WHO) and other international stakeholders have led the response in reducing prevalence of abuse and neglect across the globe. The WHO INSPIRE package is an evidence-based resource that presents seven strategies to help countries and communities to accelerate their efforts to reduce child maltreatment. One of the seven strategies is the support of parents and caregivers in the form of parenting interventions. Parenting programmes contribute to a range of 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), most prominently Target 16.2 (ending abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children), in addition to Targets 5.2 (elimination of all forms of violence against all women and girls), 16.1 (reduction of all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere), 1.3 (implementation of social protection systems), 3.2 (preventing deaths of children under 5 years) and 4.2 (ensuring access to quality early childhood development (ECD) and care). This report provides evidence on the effectiveness of parenting interventions across different contexts and populations. The findings of this report will inform the decisions of the WHO Guideline Development Group for guidelines on parenting to prevent child maltreatment and promote positive development in children aged 0–17 years.


Backhaus, S.*, Gardner, F.*, Schafer, M., Melendez-Torres, G.J.,  Knerr, W.,  Lachman, J.M.

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